Cytokine, chemokine, and matrix metalloproteinase response after sulfur mustard injury to weanling pig skin.
Published on Dec 1, 2002in Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology3.652
· DOI :10.1002/JBT.10050
Cutaneous exposure to sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide; SM] produces a delayed inflammatory skin response and severe tissue injury. Pig skin has organ similarities to human skin that is characterized by the content and types of epidermal lipids, the density of hair follicles and presence of sweat glands, which together afford penetration of topically applied compounds, complex inflammatory responses, and subsequent wound healing. The goal of this study was to identify in vivo proinflammatory biomarkers of the SM porcine skin injury within 72 h after SM challenge, using the weanling pig model. Changes in gene expression of inflammatory mediators were examined at 3, 6, 24, 48, and 72 h, using subtraction library analyses and by quantitation of selected transcripts by reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT–PCR). Sequence analysis of subtraction libraries identified up-regulation of IL-8 at 24, 48, and 72 h. No other specific proinflammatory gene transcripts were isolated from the libraries. Specific transcript RT–PCR analysis showed increased production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, gelatinase B) mRNA levels in response to SM exposure. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression was only slightly increased and no change in the levels of expression was observed for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and MMP-2. This study identifies the main proinflammatory mediators involved in SM-induced skin injury in a weanling pig model. The results suggest transcriptional activity in the inflammatory response proteins IL-8, IL-6, IL-1β, and MMP-9 and modest changes in TNF-α that together produce inflammation and contribute to the pathogenesis of SM dermatotoxicity. Therefore, drugs preventing SM-induced inflammation should be prime candidates for medical intervention to lessen collateral inflammation associated with tissue destruction. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 16:263–272, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10050