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Abstract This paper presents the photon physics models used in Serpent 2 Monte Carlo particle transport code. The four main photon interactions – photoelectric effect, Rayleigh scattering, Compton scattering and electron-positron pair production – are included in Serpent, accompanied by three secondary photon production mechanisms (electron-positron annihilation, atomic relaxation and bremsstrahlung emitted by electrons and positrons). Models, algorithms and data used for these interaction mecha...

ICRP Publication 133: The ICRP computational framework for internal dose assessment for reference adults: specific absorbed fractions:

Abstract –: Dose coefficients for assessment of internal exposures to radionuclides are radiological protection quantities giving either the organ equivalent dose or effective dose per intake of radionuclide following ingestion or inhalation. In the International Commission on Radiological Protection’s (ICRP) Occupational Intakes of Radionuclides (OIR) publication series, new biokinetic models for distribution of internalised radionuclides in the human body are presented as needed for establishi...

High-energy Coulomb corrections to the parameters of the Moliere multiple scattering theory are obtained. Numerical calculations are presented in the range of the nuclear charge number of the target atom 4

The short-wavelength limit of the electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung is re-investigated with special emphasis on the polarization correlations between incoming electron and emitted photons. A theoretical analysis of these correlations is performed within both the rigorous relativistic Dirac theory and the Dirac-Sommerfeld-Maue (DSM) approach which approximates the initial electronic state by a Sommerfeld-Maue wavefunction. Based on detailed calculations carried out for bremsstrahlung of electrons s...

Using the partial-wave formalism the cross section of bremsstrahlung for a pure Coulomb field is calculated for various atomic numbers of the target nucleus and various incident electron energies. The results are compared to those of previous theories. For intermediate and large atomic numbers the latter cross sections undervalue significantly the present ones. Except for low atomic numbers the cross sections in Born approximation with the Coulomb correction by Elwert yield more accurate results...

PREFACE MAIN POINTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. INTRODUCTION 2. Quantities used in radiation protection for external exposure 3. Determination of organ absorbed doses OF the ICRP/ICRU REFERENCE phantomS 4. Conversion coefficients for external exposure 5. Relationships between dose conversion coefficients For operational and protection quantities References Annex A - Effective dose conversion coefficients Annex B - Organ absorbed dose conversion coefficients for photons Annex C - Organ absorbed dose con...

Strong suppression of Coulomb corrections to the e + e − pair production cross section in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions

The Coulomb corrections to the e+e− pair production cross section in ultrarelativistic nuclear collisions are calculated in the next-to-leading approximation with respect to the parameter L = lnγAγB, where γA, B are the Lorentz factors of colliding nuclei. We find considerable reduction of the Coulomb corrections even for large γAγB due to the suppression of the e+e− pair production with the total energy of the order of a few electron masses in the rest frame of one of the nuclei. Our result exp...

The physical principles and approximations employed in Monte Carlo simulations of coupled electron–photon transport are reviewed. After a brief analysis of the assumptions underlying the trajectory picture used to generate random particle histories, we concentrate on the physics of the various interaction processes of photons and electrons. For each of these processes we describe the theoretical models and approximations that lead to the differential cross sections employed in general-purpose Mo...