Strain-softening of concrete in uniaxial compression

Published on May 1, 1997in Materials and Structures3.428
· DOI :10.1007/BF02486177
J.G.M. van Mier21
Estimated H-index: 21
(TU Delft: Delft University of Technology),
Surendra P. Shah116
Estimated H-index: 116
+ 21 AuthorsD. Zissopoulos1
Estimated H-index: 1
(ICL: Imperial College London)
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Abstract
0025-5432/97 © RILEM tory cast its own specimens following a prescribed recipe. The pre-peak behaviour was found to be independent of specimen slenderness when low friction loading platens were used. However, for all loading systems a strong increase of (post-peak) ductility was found with decreasing specimen slenderness. Analysis of the results, and comparison with data from literature, showed that irrespective of the loading system used, a perfect localization of deformations occured in the post-peak regime, which was first recognised by Van Mier in a series of uniaxial compression tests on concrete between brushes in 1984. Based on the results of the Round Robin, a draft recommendation will be made for a test procedure to measure strain softening of concrete under uniaxial compression. Although the post-peak stress-strain behaviour seems to be a mixture of material and structural behaviour, it appears that a test on either prismatic or cylindrical specimens of slenderness h/d = 2, loaded between low friction boundaries (for example by inserting sheets of tef lon between the steel loading platen and the specimen), yields reproducible results with relatively low scatter. For normal strength concrete, the closed-loop test can be controlled by using the axial platen-to-platen deformation as a feed-back signal, whereas for high-strength concrete either a combination of axial and lateral deformation should be used, or a combination of axial deformation and axial load. FOREWORD An extensive Round Robin test programme on compressive softening was carried out by the RILEM Technical Committee 148-SSC “Test methods for the Strain Softening response of Concrete”. The goal was to develop a reliable standard test method for measuring strain softening of concrete under uniaxial compression. The main variables in the test programme were the specimen slenderness h/d and the boundary restraint caused by the loading platen used in the experiments. Both high friction and low friction loading systems were applied. Besides these main variables, which are both related to the experimental environment under which softening is measured, two different concretes were tested: a normal strength concrete of approximately 45 MPa and a higher strength concrete of approximately 75 MPa. In addition to the prescribed test variables, due to individual initiatives, the Round Robin also provided information on the effect of specimen shape and size. The experiments revealed that under low boundary friction a constant compressive strength is measured irrespective of the specimen slenderness. For high friction loading systems (plain steel loading platen), an increase of specimen strength is found with decreasing slenderness. However, for slenderness greater than 2 (and up to 4), a constant strength was measured. The shape of the stress-strain curves was very consistent, in spite of the fact that each laboraRILEM TC 148-SSC: TEST METHODS FOR THE STRAIN-SOFTENING RESPONSE OF CONCRETE
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#1Jan G. M. van Mier (ETH Zurich)H-Index: 22
This book begins with a clear and thorough explanation of the mechanical properties and fracture processes of concrete, followed by an evaluation of test methods for assessing both experimental and numerical models. The book then presents different types of fracture models available to design experiments and analyze their accuracy. Numerous examples are included to support key concepts, and hundreds of photographs, diagrams, and tables further illuminate the text.
The concept of localization during the postpeak of compressive strain softening is presented. To explore localization in compression, a feedback-control method using a linear combination of displacement and force that partially subtracts the elastic response of the specimen to give a stable feedback signal is used. Results are presented from two test series (45 and 90 MPa) that use this method to test cylinders with length-to-diameter ratios ranging from 2.0 to 5.5 It is shown that compression f...
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#1M.R.A. van Vliet (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 8
#2J.G.M. van Mier (TU Delft: Delft University of Technology)H-Index: 21
Localization of deformations has been investigated in a series of displacement controlled uniaxial compression experiments. Of main interest are the effects of specimen slenderness and friction between loading platen and specimen. Both effects have a direct influence on the development of localized fracture zones in the specimen. The results indicate that the use of a double layer of teflon with an intermediate layer of grease yields size-independent results as far as the pre-peak stress–strain ...
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The paper describes the behaviour of concrete specimens (cubes, d=100mm) subjected to multiaxial cyclic and rotation load paths. The specimens were loaded in a recently developed multiaxial apparatus which was described shortly in Part I. A cyclic load path corresponds to a series of loading-unloading cycles to the envelope curve, for which the major compressive stress-strain curve was used for defining the unloading conditions. The rotation paths implied a simple exchange of major and minor com...
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