Think Unto Others: The Self-Destructive Impact of Negative Racial Stereotypes ☆ ☆☆

Published on Mar 1, 2001in Journal of Experimental Social Psychology
· DOI :10.1006/JESP.2000.1448
S. Christian Wheeler30
Estimated H-index: 30
(OSU: Ohio State University),
W. Blair G. Jarvis7
Estimated H-index: 7
(UPenn: University of Pennsylvania),
Richard E. Petty143
Estimated H-index: 143
(OSU: Ohio State University)
Although much research on stereotyping has documented significant negative consequences for the targets of unfavorable racial stereotypes, relatively little work has examined negative implications for the holders of such stereotypes. The present research highlights a notable cost for stereotype holders. In two studies, we demonstrated that racial stereotype activation can elicit maladaptive, stereotype-consistent behavior for nonstereotyped individuals who hold a stereotype. Non-African-American participants who were subtly primed with the African American stereotype performed significantly worse on a standardized math test than participants who were not so primed. The effect of the prime was significantly stronger for those individuals who spontaneously considered the stereotype from the first-person perspective. Implications and possible mechanisms of the effect are discussed.
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
621 Citations
2,821 Citations
5,569 Citations
#1S. Christian Wheeler (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 30
#2Richard E. Petty (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 143
Considerable recent research has examined the effects that activated stereotypes have on behavior. Research on both self-stereotype activation and other-stereotype activation has tended to show that people behave in ways consistent with the stereotype (e.g., walking more slowly if the elderly stereotype is activated). Interestingly, however, the dominant account for the behavioral effects of self-stereotype activation involves a hot motivational factor (i.e., stereotype threat), whereas the domi...
621 CitationsSource
#1Joseph P. Forgas (UNSW: University of New South Wales)H-Index: 70
#2Kipling D. WilliamsH-Index: 79
Part 1. Social Influence: Fundamental Processes and Theories R.B. Cialdini, Systematic Opportunism: An Approach to the Study of Tactical Social Influences. E.S. Knowles, S. Butler, J.A. Linn, Increasing Compliance by Reducing Resistance. B. Litane, M.J. Bourgeois, Successfully Stimulating Dynamic Social Impact: Three Levels of Prediction. M. Schaller, Unintended Influences: Social-evolutionary Processes in the Construction and Change of Culturally-shared Beliefs. A. Dijerksterhuis, Automatic Soc...
143 Citations
In this study, we tested the hypothesis that heightened self-focus would eliminate effects of stereotype activation on overt behavior. Our hypothesis was derived from the literature on conscious attention and self-focus and on recent treatments of action control. Specifically, our hypothesis was based on the notion that self-focus makes alternative behavioral cues salient and that this would lead to active inhibition of the stereotype and its effects on behavior. Indeed, results of two experimen...
110 CitationsSource
#1Richard E. Petty (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 143
#2Monique A. Fleming (OSU: Ohio State University)H-Index: 10
Last. Paul H. White (UofU: University of Utah)H-Index: 14
view all 3 authors...
Two experiments examined the viability of several explanations for why majority group individuals process persuasive messages from stigmatized sources more than those from nonstigmatized sources. In each study, majority group participants who either were high or low in prejudice or were high or low in ambivalence toward a stigmatized source's group were exposed to a persuasive communication attributed to a stigmatized (Black, Experiment 1; homosexual, Experiment 2) or nonstigmatized (White, Expe...
73 CitationsSource
#1Joshua Aronson (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 40
#2Michael J. Lustina (University of Texas at Austin)H-Index: 1
Last. Joseph L. Brown (Stanford University)H-Index: 2
view all 6 authors...
Abstract Research on “stereotype threat” (Aronson, Quinn, & Spencer, 1998; Steele, 1997; Steele & Aronson, 1995) suggests that the social stigma of intellectual inferiority borne by certain cultural minorities can undermine the standardized test performance and school outcomes of members of these groups. This research tested two assumptions about the necessary conditions for stereotype threat to impair intellectual test performance. First, we tested the hypothesis that to interfere with performa...
731 CitationsSource
Research on automatic behavior demonstrates the ability of stereotypes to elicit stereotype-consistent behavior. Social judgment research proposes that whereas traits and stereotypes elicit assimilation, priming of exemplars can elicit judgmental contrast by evoking social comparisons. This research extends these findings by showing that priming exemplars can elicit behavioral contrast by evoking a social comparison. In Study 1, priming professor or supermodel stereotypes led, respectively, to m...
315 CitationsSource
#1Susan E. Brodt (Duke University)H-Index: 13
#2Lee RossH-Index: 60
A field study methodology was used to study the role that stereotyping and prototypicality assessment play in overconfident social prediction. Preliminary research verified the existence of distinct stereotypes about inhabitants of two campus residences, generated suitable behavioral prediction items relevant to those stereotypes, and demonstrated that those stereotypes afforded some predictive validity for residents in general and self-described prototypic residents in particular. Our principal...
27 CitationsSource
The authors tested and confirmed the hypothesis that priming a stereotype or trait leads to complex overt behavior in line with this activated stereotype or trait. Specifically, 4 experiments established that priming the stereotype of professors or the trait intelligent enhanced participants' performance on a scale measuring general knowledge. Also, priming the stereotype of soccer hooligans or the trait stupid reduced participants' performance on a general knowledge scale. Results of the experi...
530 CitationsSource
#1Susan T. FiskeH-Index: 123
1,328 Citations
ATTITUDES AND SOCIAL COGNITION Stereotype Efficiency Reconsidered: Encoding Flexibility Under Cognitive Load Jeffrey W. Sherman, Angela Y. Lee, Gayle R. Bessenoff, and Leigh A. Frost Northwestern University According to the encoding flexibility model, stereotypes are efficient because they facilitate, in different ways, the encoding of both stereotype-consistent and stereotype-inconsistent information when capacity is low. Because stereotypical information is conceptually fluent, it may be easil...
203 CitationsSource
Cited By127
#2Thomas MaranH-Index: 6
Last. Marius WelteH-Index: 1
view all 5 authors...
Cognitive and behavioral factors are becoming increasingly relevant in research on the emergence of entrepreneurial action. To date, little research has examined whether an entrepreneurial mindset can be affected by targeted entrepreneurial priming interventions, even though the activation of specific mental concepts possesses the power to stimulate entrepreneurial self-concepts. Such a mechanism is also inherent in certain academic teaching methods like use-case application and storytelling. We...
3 CitationsSource
#1Fuqun Liang (Hunan University of Science and Technology)
#2Qianbao Tan (Hunan University of Science and Technology)
Last. Jiayuan Li (Hunan University of Science and Technology)
view all 5 authors...
Abstract This study aimed to explore the influence of individual thinking styles and stereotypes on moral decision-making. 114 participants completed the Rational-Experiential Inventory-40, after which they performed a moral decision-making task in which participants were asked to decide whether to sacrifice their self-interest to help the protagonists in the moral dilemmas. The results showed that: (1) Experiential participants were more likely to make altruistic moral decisions as compared to ...
#1Mingxiao Sui (Ferrum College)H-Index: 8
#2Newly Paul (UNT: University of North Texas)H-Index: 6
AbstractThis study examines Latinos’ visibility on Twitter, exploring whether social media serve as an alternate space to promote the coverage of Latinos who are almost invisible in news and entert...
1 CitationsSource
#1Fannie Liu (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 6
#2Geoff Kaufman (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 10
Last. Laura Dabbish (CMU: Carnegie Mellon University)H-Index: 34
view all 3 authors...
We explore the potential for expressive biosignals, or displays of sensed physiological data as social cues, to influence perceptions of a member of a stigmatized group. In a between-subjects experiment (N=62) participants read a fictional interview with a drug addict in prison, and rated their empathy and closeness with the interviewee. Participants were randomly assigned to read either 1) the transcript of the interview by itself, 2) the transcript with a text description of the interviewee's ...
8 CitationsSource
#1Eline L.E. De Vries (Charles III University of Madrid)H-Index: 4
#2Bob M. Fennis (Victoria University of Wellington)H-Index: 23
Using food brands as a case in point, the purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between a local vs global brand positioning strategy and buying impulsivity, as well as the mediating role of construal level. The findings add a psychological argument to the array of reasons for firms to opt for a local instead of a global brand positioning strategy: local food brands promote higher levels of buying impulsivity than global brands by lowering consumers’ level of construal.,Five experi...
8 CitationsSource
#1Elizabeth A. Bates (University of Cumbria)H-Index: 11
#2Linda K. Kaye (Edge Hill University)H-Index: 16
Last. Iain Hamlin (University of Strathclyde)H-Index: 4
view all 4 authors...
Although intimate partner violence (IPV) is considered stereotypically as a gendered phenomenon, empirical evidence contradicts such gender asymmetry in reported rates of victimisation and perpetration. The current research explored the impact of stereotype priming on implicit attitudes associated with IPV victimisation (Study 1) and perpetration (Study 2), and further examined behavioural intentions associated with hypothetical gendered scenarios of IPV. Participants recruited in the United Kin...
11 CitationsSource
#1Caroline Treweek (University of Sheffield)H-Index: 1
#2Chantelle Wood (University of Sheffield)H-Index: 9
Last. Megan Freeth (University of Sheffield)H-Index: 15
view all 4 authors...
Autism stereotypes can often portray autistic people in a negative way. However, few studies have looked at how autistic people think they are perceived by others, and none have specifically asked autistic people what they think the autistic stereotypes are. Semi-structured interviews with 12 autistic adults (aged between 20 and 63 years) were conducted. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, three main themes emerged from the data. These were as follows: (1) the primary stereotype is t...
10 CitationsSource
#1Kayla Sergent (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 4
#2Alexander D. Stajkovic (UW: University of Wisconsin-Madison)H-Index: 17
1 CitationsSource
#1Claretha Hughes (UA: University of Arkansas)H-Index: 10
#2Lucy M. Brown (UA: University of Arkansas)H-Index: 2
The ProblemAs there is diversity in many workplaces, diversity intelligence (DQ) needs to be integrated alongside intellectual, emotional, and cultural intelligences to be effective. DQ requires le...
13 CitationsSource
#1Katherine E. Adams (Purdue University)H-Index: 2
#2James M. Tyler (Purdue University)H-Index: 11
We reasoned that high self-monitors’ responses may be influenced by the characteristic traits and behaviors associated with social roles. Results across four studies confirmed expectations. The findings from Experiments 1, 2, and 3 demonstrated that exposure to a particular role (e.g., nurse) led high self-monitors to respond in a manner consistent with the relevant role. Results from Experiment 4 showed that the effect found in the first three experiments was attenuated when the behavioral guid...