Comparative Study of 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G

Varsha Khare1
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,
Shubhanshi Garg1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsParamanand Sharma1
Estimated H-index: 1
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Mobile communications systems revolutionized the way people communicate, joining together communications and mobility. A long way in a remarkably short time has been achieved in the history of wireless. Evolution of wireless access technologies is about to reach its fourth generation (4G). Looking past, wireless access technologies have followed different evolutionary paths aimed at unified target: performance and efficiency in high mobile environment. The first generation (1G) has fulfilled the...
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Mobile communication is continuing to be one of the hottest areas developing at a booming speed, with advanced techniques emerging in all the fields of mobile and wireless communications. Currently, 3G mobile communication systems are just beginning to be deployed, while research on the next generation of mobile communications, 4G wireless and mobile networks, begin to pave the way for the future. This paper studies the visions of 4G from a technical perspective. After a brief review on the deve...
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Internet of Things (IoT) has been developing to become a free exchange of useful information between multiple real-world devices. Already spread all over the world in the most varied forms and applications, IoT devices need to overcome a series of challenges to respond to the new requirements and demands. The main focus of this manuscript is to establish good practices for the design of IoT devices (i.e., smart devices) with a focus on two main design challenges: power and connectivity. It group...
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Counterfeit drugs impose risk to human life and properties. Many organizations globally are involved in campaigning for counterfeit drugs control. Almost all these efforts are focused on control at various stages of production and supply chain, while less or rare efforts are invested at terminal intervention by the end users. In this paper, a historical background of some of the existing applications of ICT to counterfeit drug control is presented. These basically revolve round the Global System...
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Dec 1, 2018 in IOT (The Internet of Things)
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Improvements in Internet of Things (IoT) enabling technology lead to increased potential for creating smart and safe cities for the future. While many first world countries already reap the benefits of this technology, developing countries, specifically those in Sub-Saharan Africa, still need to overcome significant barriers before experiencing the same value. Two of these barriers are a) existing network infrastructure and b) limited financial backing to implement a stand-alone IoT network. In ...
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Utilization is a key aspect in the management of any societal resource not only when it is scarce but in all cases to allow for optimum benefits to be accrued to everyone in the society. Internet ...
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Abstract Forth Generation (4G) network support for wide geographical locations proves its use as a more advanced wireless technology. The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G mobile communications standard set by International Communication Union (ITU), specifically ITU Radio communication Sector (ITU-R). At the moment, video traffic and telecommunications grow under the expansion of LTE, which is considered as the actual motivating access technology of 4G network. Throughout the deployment of LTE,...
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