Comparative Study of 1G, 2G, 3G and 4G

Varsha Khare1
Estimated H-index: 1
Shubhanshi Garg1
Estimated H-index: 1
+ 1 AuthorsParamanand Sharma1
Estimated H-index: 1
📖 Papers frequently viewed together
1 Citations
#1Amit KumarH-Index: 7
#2Yunfei LiuH-Index: 7
Last. Jyotsna SenguptaH-Index: 8
view all 3 authors...
Mobile communications systems revolutionized the way people communicate, joining together communications and mobility. A long way in a remarkably short time has been achieved in the history of wireless. Evolution of wireless access technologies is about to reach its fourth generation (4G). Looking past, wireless access technologies have followed different evolutionary paths aimed at unified target: performance and efficiency in high mobile environment. The first generation (1G) has fulfilled the...
55 Citations
#1Ajay R. MishraH-Index: 1
117 Citations
#1Jun-Zhao Sun (University of Oulu)H-Index: 12
#2Jaakko J. Sauvola (University of Oulu)H-Index: 15
Last. Douglas Howie (University of Oulu)H-Index: 6
view all 3 authors...
Mobile communication is continuing to be one of the hottest areas developing at a booming speed, with advanced techniques emerging in all the fields of mobile and wireless communications. Currently, 3G mobile communication systems are just beginning to be deployed, while research on the next generation of mobile communications, 4G wireless and mobile networks, begin to pave the way for the future. This paper studies the visions of 4G from a technical perspective. After a brief review on the deve...
93 CitationsSource
Cited By28
#1Muhammad Nor OmarH-Index: 15
Last. Rashad RamzanH-Index: 11
view all 4 authors...
#1Felisberto PereiraH-Index: 6
#2Ricardo CorreiaH-Index: 8
Last. Nuno Borges CarvalhoH-Index: 27
view all 5 authors...
Internet of Things (IoT) has been developing to become a free exchange of useful information between multiple real-world devices. Already spread all over the world in the most varied forms and applications, IoT devices need to overcome a series of challenges to respond to the new requirements and demands. The main focus of this manuscript is to establish good practices for the design of IoT devices (i.e., smart devices) with a focus on two main design challenges: power and connectivity. It group...
7 CitationsSource
#1Sara Mosavichechaklou (Istanbul University)
#2Zehra Bozbay (Istanbul University)H-Index: 5
Consumers being conscious about environmental issues tend to have favorable attitude to green purchasing. Offering eco-friendly products and services should be a good strategy for all companies wishing to provide competitive advantage in the marketplace. In the literature, a number of factors accepted as the antecedents of green purchasing behavior and this study examined eight factors of them. It is predicted that the factors which have an effect on the green purchasing behavior are different b...
Counterfeit drugs impose risk to human life and properties. Many organizations globally are involved in campaigning for counterfeit drugs control. Almost all these efforts are focused on control at various stages of production and supply chain, while less or rare efforts are invested at terminal intervention by the end users. In this paper, a historical background of some of the existing applications of ICT to counterfeit drug control is presented. These basically revolve round the Global System...
Dec 1, 2018 in IOT (The Internet of Things)
#1Reino J. von Wielligh (NWU: North-West University)
#2Magdalena J. Grobler (NWU: North-West University)H-Index: 3
Last. Henri-Jean Marais (NWU: North-West University)H-Index: 3
view all 3 authors...
Improvements in Internet of Things (IoT) enabling technology lead to increased potential for creating smart and safe cities for the future. While many first world countries already reap the benefits of this technology, developing countries, specifically those in Sub-Saharan Africa, still need to overcome significant barriers before experiencing the same value. Two of these barriers are a) existing network infrastructure and b) limited financial backing to implement a stand-alone IoT network. In ...
Utilization is a key aspect in the management of any societal resource not only when it is scarce but in all cases to allow for optimum benefits to be accrued to everyone in the society. Internet ...
#1Kulani Mhlongo (UNISA: University of South Africa)H-Index: 1
#2Jabu Mtsweni (UNISA: University of South Africa)H-Index: 6
Last. Florah Modiba (NMU: Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University)H-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Mobile payment solutions are generally not widely adopted by township residents in South Africa. Thus, this paper reports on the results of a study conducted to investigate and assess the factors that inhibit or promote the adoption, diffusion and use of mobile payments by township residents. The study was conducted in the Soshanguve Township on the outskirts of Pretoria in the Gauteng province, South Africa. The study adopted a mixed method approach for data collection and data analysis. The pr...
3 CitationsSource
#1Shahrudin Awang Nor (UUM: Universiti Utara Malaysia)H-Index: 6
#2Raaid Alubady (UUM: Universiti Utara Malaysia)H-Index: 4
Last. Wisam Abduladeem KamilH-Index: 1
view all 3 authors...
Abstract Forth Generation (4G) network support for wide geographical locations proves its use as a more advanced wireless technology. The Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G mobile communications standard set by International Communication Union (ITU), specifically ITU Radio communication Sector (ITU-R). At the moment, video traffic and telecommunications grow under the expansion of LTE, which is considered as the actual motivating access technology of 4G network. Throughout the deployment of LTE,...
3 CitationsSource