arXiv: Physics and Society

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#1Agata FronczakH-Index: 16

#2Maciej J. MrowinskiH-Index: 5

Last. Piotr FronczakH-Index: 17

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We present the first complete confirmation of Granovetter's theory of social networks using a massive dataset. For this purpose, we study a scientific collaboration network, which is considered one of the most important examples that contradicts the universality of this theory. We achieve this goal by rejecting the assumption of the symmetry of social ties. Our approach is grounded in well-established heterogeneous (degree-based) mean-field theory commonly used to study dynamical processes on co...

#2Victor M. Yakovenko (UMD: University of Maryland, College Park)H-Index: 31

The first part of this paper is a brief survey of the approaches to economic inequality based on ideas from statistical physics and kinetic theory. These include the Boltzmann kinetic equation, the time-reversal symmetry, the ergodicity hypothesis, entropy maximization, and the Fokker-Planck equation. The origins of the exponential Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution and the Pareto power law are discussed in relation to additive and multiplicative stochastic processes. The second part of the paper anal...

Self-organization of robust and efficient networks is important for a future design of communication or transportation systems, because both characteristics are not coexisting in many real networks. As one of the candidates for the coexisting, the optimal robustness of onion-like structure with positive degree-degree correlations has recently been found, and it can be generated by incrementally growing methods based on a pair of random and intermediation attachments with the minimum degree selec...

Individual- and pair-based models of epidemic spreading: master equations and analysis of their forecasting capabilities

Last. Giovanni RussoH-Index: 48

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Mathematical modeling of disease spreading plays a crucial role in understanding, controlling and preventing epidemic outbreaks. In a microscopic description of the propagation of a disease over the complex network of human contacts, the probability that an individual is in a given state (susceptible, infectious, recovered etc) depends on the state of its neighbors in the network. Thus it depends on the state of pairs of nodes, which in turns depends on triples, in a hierarchy of dynamical depen...

We derive the most basic dynamical properties of random hyperbolic graphs (the distributions of contact and intercontact durations) in the hot regime (network temperature T > 1. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the contact distribution decays as a power law with exponent 2+T > 3for durations t > T while for t null null 3 On the other hand, the intercontact distribution exhibits power-law decays with exponent 2-T \in (0, 1)for T \in (1,2) while for T > 2it displays lin...

#2S. Martin-GutierrezH-Index: 3

Last. Fariba KarimiH-Index: 13

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Mounting evidence suggests that publications and citations of scholars in the STEM fields (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) suffer from gender biases. In this paper, we study the physics community, a core STEM field in which women are still largely underrepresented and where these gender disparities persist. To reveal such inequalities, we compare the citations received by papers led by men and women that cover the same topics in a comparable way. To do that, we devise a robust ...

An affordable tool based on a pedestrian-vehicle collision model to support the fieldwork and reconstruction

Last. Alejandra Baena

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A Free access tool based on a pedestrian-vehicle collision model is presented. The model permitted the qualitative and quantitative description of the events whole dynamic by segments called pre-collision, collision, and post collision. Furthermore, it enabled the determination of the magnitude of the vehicles initial speed before the collision with a pedestrian and the location of the point position of impact on the road where the accident occurred. The models inputs are related to the evidence...

#1Marko JusupH-Index: 18

#2Petter HolmeH-Index: 51

Last. Lin WangH-Index: 30

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Recent decades have seen a rise in the use of physics-inspired or physics-like methods in attempts to resolve diverse societal problems. Such a rise is driven both by physicists venturing outside of their traditional domain of interest, but also by scientists from other domains who wish to mimic the enormous success of physics throughout the 19th and 20th century. Here, we dub the physics-inspired and physics-like work on societal problems "social physics", and pay our respect to intellectual ma...

#1L. D. ValdezH-Index: 12

#2Lidia A. BraunsteinH-Index: 29

Real networks are vulnerable to random failures and malicious attacks. However, when a node is harmed or damaged, it may remain partially functional, which helps to maintain the overall network structure and functionality. In this paper, we study the network structure for a fractional percolation process [Shang, Phys. Rev. E 89, 012813 (2014)], in which the state of a node can be either fully functional (FF), partially functional (PF), or dysfunctional (D). We develop new equations to calculate ...

Which will be your firm's next technology? Comparison between machine learning and network-based algorithms.

#2Luciano PietroneroH-Index: 34

Last. Andrea ZaccariaH-Index: 14

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We reconstruct the innovation dynamics of about two hundred thousand companies by following their patenting activity for about ten years. We define the technological portfolios of these companies as the set of the technological sectors present in the patents they submit. By assuming that companies move more frequently towards related sectors, we leverage on their past activity to build network-based and machine learning algorithms to forecast the future submission of patents in new sectors. We c...

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