Comprehensive Physiology
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#1Morten Hostrup (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 18
#2Simeon P. Cairns (AUT: Auckland University of Technology)H-Index: 14
Last. Jens Bangsbo (UCPH: University of Copenhagen)H-Index: 97
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Exercise causes major shifts in multiple ions (e.g., K+ , Na+ , H+ , lactate- , Ca2+ , and Cl- ) during muscle activity that contributes to development of muscle fatigue. Sarcolemmal processes can be impaired by the trans-sarcolemmal rundown of ion gradients for K+ , Na+ , and Ca2+ during fatiguing exercise, while changes in gradients for Cl- and Cl- conductance may exert either protective or detrimental effects on fatigue. Myocellular H+ accumulation may also contribute to fatigue development b...
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#1Devashis Mukherjee (MCW: Medical College of Wisconsin)
#2Girija G. Konduri (MCW: Medical College of Wisconsin)H-Index: 31
Pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is a multifactorial disease with diverse etiologies and presenting features. Pulmonary hypertension (PH), defined as elevated pulmonary artery pressure, is the presenting feature for several pulmonary vascular diseases. It is often a hidden component of other lung diseases, such as cystic fibrosis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Alterations in lung development and genetic conditions are an important contributor to pediatric pulmonary hypertensive disease, w...
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#1James McKendry (McMaster University)H-Index: 9
#2Tanner Stokes (McMaster University)H-Index: 7
Last. Stuart M. Phillips (McMaster University)H-Index: 116
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Skeletal muscle is the organ of locomotion, its optimal function is critical for athletic performance, and is also important for health due to its contribution to resting metabolic rate and as a site for glucose uptake and storage. Numerous endogenous and exogenous factors influence muscle mass. Much of what is currently known regarding muscle protein turnover is owed to the development and use of stable isotope tracers. Skeletal muscle mass is determined by the meal- and contraction-induced alt...
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#2Allyson G. Hindle (UNLV: University of Nevada, Las Vegas)H-Index: 18
Continuous physiological measurements collected in field settings are essential to understand baseline, free-ranging physiology, physiological range and variability, and the physiological responses of organisms to disturbances. This article presents a current summary of the available technologies to continuously measure the direct physiological parameters in the field at high-resolution/instantaneous timescales from freely behaving animals. There is a particular focus on advantages versus disadv...
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#1Ke Yuan (Boston Children's Hospital)H-Index: 19
#2Stuti Agarwal (Stanford University)H-Index: 6
Last. Rocio Vasquez (UCF: University of Central Florida)
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Pericytes are mesenchymal-derived mural cells localized within the basement membrane of pulmonary and systemic capillaries. Besides structural support, pericytes control vascular tone, produce extracellular matrix components, and cytokines responsible for promoting vascular homeostasis and angiogenesis. However, pericytes can also contribute to vascular pathology through the production of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic cytokines, differentiation into myofibroblast-like cells, destruction of t...
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#1Xue W Ng (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)
#2Yong H Chung (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)
Last. David W. Piston (WashU: Washington University in St. Louis)H-Index: 74
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Blood glucose homeostasis requires proper function of pancreatic islets, which secrete insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin from the β-, α-, and δ-cells, respectively. Each islet cell type is equipped with intrinsic mechanisms for glucose sensing and secretory actions, but these intrinsic mechanisms alone cannot explain the observed secretory profiles from intact islets. Regulation of secretion involves interconnected mechanisms among and between islet cell types. Islet cells lose their normal fu...
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#1Nadia Ayala-Lopez (JHUSOM: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine)H-Index: 7
#2Stephanie W. Watts (MSU: Michigan State University)H-Index: 39
Regulation of the ability of a neurotransmitter [our focus: serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, glycine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)] to reach its receptor targets is regulated in part by controlling the access the neurotransmitter has to receptors. Transporters, located at both the cellular plasma membrane and in subcellular vesicles, carry a myriad of responsibilities that include enabling neurotransmitter release and controlling uptake of neurotransmitter back into a ce...
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As our understanding of respiratory control evolves, we appreciate how the basic neurobiological principles of plasticity discovered in other systems shape the development and function of the respiratory control system. While breathing is a robust homeostatic function, there is growing evidence that stress disrupts respiratory control in ways that predispose to disease. Neonatal stress (in the form of maternal separation) affects "classical" respiratory control structures such as the peripheral ...
1 CitationsSource
#1S. B. FournierH-Index: 5
#1Sara B. FournierH-Index: 8
Last. Phoebe A. StapletonH-Index: 19
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Successful pregnancy and reproduction are dependent on adequate uterine blood flow, placental perfusion, and vascular responsivity to fetal demands. The ability to support pregnancy centers on systemic adaptation and endometrial preparation through decidualization, embryonic implantation, trophoblast invasion, arterial/arteriolar reactivity, and vascular remodeling. These adaptations occur through responsiveness to endocrine signaling and local uteroplacental mediators. The purpose of this artic...
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The development and maintenance of differentiation is vital to the function of mature cells. Terminal differentiation is achieved by locking in the expression of genes essential for the function of those cells. Gene expression and its memory through generations of cell division is controlled by transcription factors and a host of epigenetic marks. In type 2 diabetes, β cells have altered gene expression compared to controls, accompanied by altered chromatin marks. Mutations, diet, and environmen...
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