Paul J. Ponganis
University of California, San Diego
AnatomyOceanographyInternal medicineSea iceAnimal scienceForagingEcologyGeographyEmperorBradycardiaHeart rateAptenodytesZalophus californianusSea lionDiving physiologyFisheryOxygenMedicineBiologyZoology
131Publications
41H-index
4,158Citations
Publications 132
Newest
In the 1940s, Scholander and Irving revealed fundamental physiological responses to forced diving of marine mammals and birds, setting the stage for the study of diving physiology. Since then, diving physiology research has moved from the laboratory to the field. Modern biologging, with the development of microprocessor technology, recorder memory capacity and battery life, has advanced and expanded investigations of the diving physiology of marine mammals and birds. This review describes a brie...
6 CitationsSource
#1Gerald L. Kooyman (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 68
#2Birgitte I. McDonald (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories)H-Index: 20
Last. Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
view all 5 authors...
Abstract The aerobic dive limit (ADL) and the hypothesis that most dives are aerobic in nature have become fundamental to the understanding of diving physiology and to the interpretation of diving behavior and foraging ecology of marine mammals and seabirds. An ADL, the dive duration associated with the onset of post-dive blood lactate accumulation, has only been documented with blood lactate analyses in five species. Applications to other species have involved behavioral estimates or use of an ...
7 CitationsSource
#1Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
Physio-logging has the potential to explore the processes that underlie the dive behavior and ecology of marine mammals and seabirds, as well as evaluate their adaptability to environmental change and other stressors. Regulation of heart rate lies at the core of the physiological processes that determine dive capacity and performance. The bio-logging of heart rate in unrestrained animals diving at sea was infeasible, even unimaginable in the mid-1970s. To provide a historical perspective, I revi...
Source
#1Gerald L. Kooyman (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 68
#2Kimberly T. Goetz (NOAA: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)H-Index: 11
Last. R. P. van Dam (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 6
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Although most dives of emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri) are less than 100 m, penguins from the Cape Washington colony regularly perform deep dives > 400 m. To evaluate the significance and location of these deep dives of birds on foraging trips from Cape Washington, we report the satellite tracks of three birds. We also review the frequency of deep dives in the 35 of 42 birds that performed deep dives during seven research seasons over 22 years. Records included 83,314 dives, of which 141...
3 CitationsSource
#1Birgitte I. McDonald (Moss Landing Marine Laboratories)H-Index: 20
#2Michael S. Tift (UNCW: University of North Carolina at Wilmington)H-Index: 12
Last. Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
view all 5 authors...
The dive response, bradycardia (decreased heart rate) and peripheral vasoconstriction, is the key mechanism allowing breath-hold divers to perform long-duration dives while actively swimming and hunting prey. This response is variable and modulated by factors such as dive duration, depth, exercise and cognitive control. This study assesses the potential role of exercise and relative lung volume in the regulation of heart rate (fH) during dives of adult female California sea lions instrumented wi...
5 CitationsSource
#1Cassondra L. Williams (Shelter Insurance)H-Index: 11
#2Max F. Czapanskiy (Stanford University)H-Index: 2
Last. Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
view all 6 authors...
Some marine birds and mammals can perform dives of extraordinary duration and depth. Such dive performance is dependent on many factors, including total body oxygen (O2) stores. For diving penguins, the respiratory system (air sacs and lungs) constitutes 30-50% of the total body O2 store. To better understand the role and mechanism of parabronchial ventilation and O2 utilization in penguins both on the surface and during the dive, we examined air sac partial pressures of O2 (PO2) in emperor peng...
3 CitationsSource
#1Jeremy A. Goldbogen (Stanford University)H-Index: 32
#2David E. Cade (Stanford University)H-Index: 14
Last. Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
view all 11 authors...
The biology of the blue whale has long fascinated physiologists because of the animal’s extreme size. Despite high energetic demands from a large body, low mass-specific metabolic rates are likely powered by low heart rates. Diving bradycardia should slow blood oxygen depletion and enhance dive time available for foraging at depth. However, blue whales exhibit a high-cost feeding mechanism, lunge feeding, whereby large volumes of prey-laden water are intermittently engulfed and filtered during d...
19 CitationsSource
#1Natalie Bickett (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 1
#2Michael S. Tift (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 12
Last. Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
view all 4 authors...
11 CitationsSource
#1Michael S. Tift (UNCW: University of North Carolina at Wilmington)H-Index: 12
#2Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
In this Opinion, adaptations to hypoxia are examined during the short time domains of breath holds from three accomplished diving animals: northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), and emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). Review of dive behavior, oxygen (O2) storage, and arterial blood O2 profiles during dives reveals that the elephant seal undergoes the most frequent and extreme hypoxemia. Exceptional breath hold durations, routine hyp...
8 CitationsSource
#1Paul J. Ponganis (UCSD: University of California, San Diego)H-Index: 41
Anatomical and physiological adaptations of animals to extreme environments provide insight into basic physiological principles and potential therapies for human disease. In that regard, the diving physiology of marine mammals and seabirds is especially relevant to pulmonary and cardiovascular function, and to the pathology and potential treatment of patients with hypoxaemia and/or ischaemia. This review highlights past and recent progress in the field of comparative diving physiology with empha...
11 CitationsSource