James A. Blank
Battelle Memorial Institute
CytotoxicityPathologyMolecular biologyCytotoxic T cellChemistryIn vitroImmunologyMyeloperoxidaseIn vivoInflammationNitrogen mustardNerve agentAcetylcholinesteraseHairlessSomanSulfur mustardPercutaneousEdemaMonocyteToxicityEnd pointErythrocyte acetylcholinesteraseToxicologyMedicineBiologyPharmacology
Publications 19
#1David W. HobsonH-Index: 2
#2James A. BlankH-Index: 6
#1Carol L. K. Sabourin (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 24
#2Michele M. Danne (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 2
Last. Robert P. Casillas (United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense)H-Index: 20
view all 8 authors...
Cutaneous exposure to sulfur mustard [bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide (SM)] produces a delayed inflammatory skin response that is followed by severe dermal injury. Assessment of anti-inflammatory therapies against SM-induced skin injury has mainly relied on qualitative histopathological evaluation. The goal of this study was to identify proinflammatory biomarkers in the hairless mouse vesicant model that could be used as additional indicators of SM-induced skin injury for evaluating anti-inflammatory...
23 CitationsSource
#1Robert P. Casillas (United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense)H-Index: 20
#2Robyn C. Kiser (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 9
Last. James A. Blank (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 6
view all 10 authors...
The mouse ear edema model is recognized for its usefulness in studying skin responses and damage following exposure to chemical irritants, and for evaluating pharmacological agents against chemically induced skin injury. We recently modified the mouse ear edema model for use with sulfur mustard (HD) and used this model to study the protective effect of 33 topically applied compounds comprising five pharmaceutical strategies (anti-inflammatories, protease inhibitors, scavengers/chelators, poly(AD...
78 CitationsSource
#1James A. Blank (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 6
#2L. A. Lane (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 1
Last. R. P. CasillasH-Index: 1
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A preparation procedure for making multiple inflammatory biomarker measurements from the same skin tissue was assessed. The backs of euthymic hairless mice were exposed to sulfur mustard (HD) vapor for 6 min. Animals were euthanized 24 h following exposure, dorsal skin tissue was excised and 12-mm, full-thickness biopsy punches of the exposed skin sites were taken. Specimens were snap-frozen, crushed to a powder using a biopulverizer unit, solubilized in buffer and centrifuged. Supernatant was a...
12 CitationsSource
#1Michele M. DanneH-Index: 2
#2James A. BlankH-Index: 6
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Abstract : Vesicants, such as sulfur mustard (HD), pose an insidious threat to the respiratory tract. Exposure causes acute lung injury characteristic of an inflammatory response. Nuclear Factor-KAPPA B (NF- square B) is a redox sensitive transcription factor important in regulating genes involved in the inflammation. This study evaluated levels of NF-square B following exposure to HD. Male rats were euthanized at 3, 6, or 24 hr following intravenous HD or isopropanol (IPA controls) exposure. Nu...
#1Carl T. OlsonH-Index: 9
#2Michele M. DanneH-Index: 2
Last. Kristi L. BuxtonH-Index: 2
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Abstract : The objective of this study was to investigate the pharmacologic modulation of biomarkers for evaluating therapeutics against HD. The molecular biomarkers investigated, using a ribonuclease protection assay (RPA) to determine messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels, were mediators of inflammation, including several cytokines and chemokines, tenascin, and ornithine decarboxylase. Biochemical biomarkers investigated were serum amyloid P (SAP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1 al...
#1Carl T. OlsonH-Index: 9
#2Robyn C. KiserH-Index: 9
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Abstract : The mouse ear model has been used at the U.S. Army Medical Institute of chemical Defense (USAMRICD) to assess dermal injury caused by sulfur mustard (HD) and to evaluate potential pre- and posttreatment compounds for efficacy against percutaneous HD injury. In this model, the effects of HD with or without treatment compounds are evaluated macroscopically by edema and microscopically by histopathological changes associated with HD injury. The objectives of Task 9543 were first to trans...
#1William J. SmithH-Index: 1
#2James A. BlankH-Index: 6
Last. Joy L. HarrisH-Index: 1
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Sulfur mustard (HD) is a bifunctional alkylating agent that has mutagenic, cytotoxic, and vesicating properties (1–3). Although HD preferentially alkylates DNA, it is also known to modify RNA and proteins covalently (4). DNA alkylation has been postulated to be the molecular mechanism that initiates a cascade of events terminating in vesication (5). DNA alkylating agents, like HD, have been shown to cause unbalanced cell growth, a condition that occurs when cells exposed to cytotoxic drugs incre...
1 CitationsSource
#1Carl T. Olson (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 9
#2James A. Blank (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 6
Last. Ronald G. Menton (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 8
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A study is being initiated to investigate subtle neurobehavioral effects and neuropathology in rats due to exposure to combinations of low levels of Sarin (GB), N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and pyridostigmine bromide (PB). A similar study is being initiated in rhesus monkeys to investigate neurophysiology effects and neuromuscular pathology due to exposure to a combination of GB, DEET, CPF, and PB, along with vaccination with botulinum toxoid. A description of these studi...
9 CitationsSource
#1Carl T. Olson (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 9
#2Ronald G. Menton (Battelle Memorial Institute)H-Index: 8
Last. Hobson DwH-Index: 2
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Production of methemoglobin (met Hb) is effective in treating or preventing cyanide intoxication due to the affinity of cyanide for met Hb. This paper describes an automated method for measuring met Hb in mouse blood utilizing the Roche COB AS FARA centrifugal analyzer and a modified Evelyn–Malloy procedure. Blood samples were spiked with various quantities of potassium ferricyanide to produce met Hb, and automated and manual analyses of these samples were compared. Following validation of the C...
3 CitationsSource